For more than 80 years, the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC) has isolated and categorized (completely or partially) virological and serological data. The IEC has isolated and categorized about 200 different species of arboviruses (human diseases), some of which lack a taxonomical classification.

The similarity of arbovirus symptoms and antigenic similarity makes it challenging to diagnose them in lab settings. In addition, haphazard urbanization and rubbish buildup encourage the growth of arbovirus vectors, which causes diseases to emerge and reappear, especially those caused by flaviviruses and alphaviruses.

The encephalitogenic viruses recorded at the Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers (SAARB) of the IEC throughout the previous 60 years are shown in a recent research published in the journal Viruses.

Arbovirus infections have been linked to a wide range of illnesses, including mild febrile illnesses, hemorrhagic fevers, and neurologic symptoms.

Biological transmission between hematophagous arthropods and susceptible vertebrate hosts, or between arthropod hosts via the transovarian and/or venereal pathway, is how arboviruses are viruses that are maintained in nature. After an extrinsic incubation period, they can replicate in vertebrate hosts, multiply in arthropod tissues, and are transmitted to new susceptible vertebrates via arthropod bites.

There are now seven viral families of arboviruses known to be capable of infecting both people and animals, including Asfaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Flaviviridae, Phenuiviridae, Sedoreoviridae, Togaviridae, and Peribunyaviridae. Neuroinvasive viruses among them include the West Nile virus (WNV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Dengue virus (DENV), Rocio virus (ROCV), and Zika virus (ZIKV).