Boys and girls differ in their development in numerous biological processes, including susceptibility to infection, the development of the nervous system, and the etiology of common disorders, particularly obesity. There is evidence that in 96% of high-income countries worldwide, boys are more likely than girls to be obese.

Despite the fact that there is a considerable difference in how boys and girls develop, studies primarily view sex as a confounding factor rather than a cause. Exposome studies, which examine how environmental influences affect biological processes, focus primarily on the analysis of extensive data gathered at the individual or population level in order to quickly and effectively pinpoint the most effective interventions for the correct population. Since sex is the primary factor that distinguishes people, it is necessary for exposome investigations.

to look at how environmental factors impact sexual differences in sickness and development.

The profiles of specific prenatal exposures that may shield girls more than boys from obesity and neurodevelopmental delay were determined in the current study using a method called casual modeling.

Additionally, researchers have looked at whether these prenatal exposures affect the DNA methylation patterns of preteen boys and girls, particularly in terms of epigenetic alterations. The researchers examined 1044 children’s records from the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study, which was carried out in Europe. They specifically examined children (5–11 years old) clinical, cognitive, and methylation data connected to 93 prenatal exposures.

They carried out an exposome-wide interaction analysis to determine which prenatal exposures had the greatest influence on the sexual variation in obesity risk and neurodevelopmental delay. They classified the children into two different environments, namely E1 and E0.