The role that subcellular organelles known as mitochondria play in numerous energy processes is well understood. A rising corpus of studies demonstrates that mitochondria play a crucial part in the body’s reaction to short-term and long-term stress exposure.
Interest in these organelles is increased by this biological reaction to adversity in terms of psychological and physical functioning in a number of disorders typical in older persons.
Furthermore, MedDiet also seems to affect mitochondrial activity, which supports its involvement in lowering the risk of negative health impacts.There is considerable evidence supporting the MedDiet’s abundance in polyphenols and other naturally occurring compounds with potent antioxidant properties, as well as its power to scavenge free radicals and regulate endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms.
The mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes may contribute to these effects. Polyphenols help reduce inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS) because of their antioxidant properties.
Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the MedDiet polyphenols improved mitochondrial damage and apoptosis and decreased the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in a number of experimental studies. Numerous studies have found that MedDiet’s high fiber content has positive effects on health.
The benefits of diets rich in polyphenols on MetS, which mediates mitochondrial control, have been examined in several in vitro investigations.
Utilizing human endothelial cells, the chlorogenic acid (CGA) has positive benefits in apples and coffee beans against ox-low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced endothelial cell dysfunction in a cellular model of atherosclerosis.
CGA demonstrated mitochondria-mediated effects by increasing the activity of the silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog-1 (SIRT1) and up-regulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to sustain mitochondrial biogenesis.
Additionally, CGA therapy reduced the production of ROS by endothelial cells, which had an effect on cytoprotection.
In MedDiet, whole carbohydrates are another important food group that positively affects metabolic disorders.
The Sirtuin 3-Forkhead box O3a (SIRT3-FOXO3a) signaling system is specifically activated by 5-heptadecylresorcinol, a biomarker for whole grain rye consumption, to defend against H2O2-induced oxidative stress detected in rat pheochromocytoma.
Additionally, it increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell metabolism by maintaining mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential while lowering the amounts of ROS in the mitochondria.
Resveratrol, present in foods like fruits, berries, and cocoa, has been shown in other research to have age- and dose-dependent antioxidant effects.
This polyphenol rivals nicotinamide to increase its function in a solubilized mitochondria complex. The reduced Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, which is instead elevated in obese patients and patients with systemic illnesses, is another manifestation of prebiotic resveratrol characteristics, which changes the variability and makeup of the gut microbiota.